Parenting Styles - Family types


  • Expect children "to do because I say so"
  • Children may internalize anger, may behave appropriately though fear rather than understanding and 'have an increased likelihood of suffering anxiety and depression -related problems later in life. (Hayes)
  • Restricts children
  • Parents control children
  • Baumrind (1978) showed in studies that children of authoritarian parents showed a little independence and were more withdrawn an unhappy.
  • Has been labelled the democratic parent and 'children experiencing such a practice are active, outgoing, friendly, independent, creative and disobedient. (Hayes)
  • Encourages children to be independent yet still places control over their actions
  • Parents are warm and nurturing towards their children
  • Recognises children's individual interests and special ways
  • Children are more likely to be self-reliant and socially responsible
  • Neglectful
    • Parents is very uninvolved in child's life
    • Parents is more concerned with his/her own comfort than the needs of the child
    • Children may have low self -esteem and may not be very independent
    • 'a child experiencing this type of parenting may act out resentment with an increased tendency to delinquency. (Hayes)
  • Indulgent
    • Parent highly involved with the child but places few demands or controls on them
    • Can give them lots of material goods (, cloths etc) but not give time and attention
    • A child from this background will tend to be neat, polite, dependent and conforming.

  • Nuclear families 
This is the family structure that is portrayed as a 'normal' by the media.

  • Extended families
Parents children and other relatives live together or nearby.

  • Reconstituted families
Reconstituted families are consists of one natural parent and one step-parent.

  • Nomadic families
Families live by travelling from one place to another.
Two types of travelling families are the Gypsies and new age travellers.

  • Lone-parent families
Lone parent families consist on one natural parent
    • Widowed
    • Separated
    • Single women who have chosen motherhood
    • Teenage mothers

  • Adoptive families
Families may or may not have natural children have also adoptive children

  • Homosexual / lesbian families
Some children live with one natural parent and same-sex-step-parent.

  • Communal families
There are few communes, where several families who are unrelated live together and act as an extended family for the children.